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WebA binary option is a financial exotic option in which the payoff is either some fixed monetary amount or nothing at all. The two main types of binary options are the cash-or-nothing binary option and the asset-or-nothing binary option. The former pays some fixed amount of cash if the option expires in-the-money while the latter pays the value of the WebIn statistics, quality assurance, and survey methodology, sampling is the selection of a subset (a statistical sample) of individuals from within a statistical population to estimate characteristics of the whole population. Statisticians attempt to collect samples that are representative of the population in question. Sampling has lower costs and faster data WebIn finance, a derivative is a contract that derives its value from the performance of an underlying entity. This underlying entity can be an asset, index, or interest rate, and is often simply called the "underlying". Derivatives can be used for a number of purposes, including insuring against price movements (), increasing exposure to price movements for WebCoin flipping, coin tossing, or heads or tails is the practice of throwing a coin in the air and checking which side is showing when it lands, in order to choose between two alternatives, heads or tails, sometimes used to resolve a dispute between two parties. It is a form of sortition which inherently has two possible outcomes. The party who calls the side that is WebCabinet level official: Richard Grenell () – Director of National Intelligence (acting, was never confirmed or put up for confirmation) Head of a federal agency: John Berry (–) – Director of the Office of Personnel Management United States marshal: Sharon Lubinski (–) – U.S. marshal for the District of Minnesota; United States ... read more

Method 1. Open your GitHub project page. To use the Importer, you'll first need the URL of your desired repository. This should be in the upper right-hand or left-hand corner of your screen; clicking it will prompt a drop-down menu.

Click the "Import Repository" option. This will take you to the import menu. Enter your repository's URL. You'll need to do this in the field under the "Your old repository's clone URL" heading. Set up your repository's tags. These include the user account with which the repository is associated and a name for the repository. Click "Public" or "Private" to categorize your repository. Public repositories are available to the entire GitHub community, whereas Private repositories are restricted to you and any collaborators with whom you choose to share.

Click "Begin Import". This should be in the lower right-hand corner of the Import menu. You may have to enter the account credentials associated with your repository if it's being imported from an account with password-protected attributes. In the event that you have multiple projects saved at the target URL, click your desired file name to import that repository.

Choose "Include large files" if necessary. If you are importing numerous files, you can choose to include or exclude large files from within the repository. Click "Continue" to finalize this process. Importing large files can cost extra, so review your payment plan if you're uncertain about the implications of importing large files. Wait for your import to finish. GitHub will send you an email at your registered address when the process is complete.

Method 2. If you want to import an old repository from a private network, you'll want to use a command line to do so. You'll need to have your old repository's URL and your GitHub username available before continuing. Create a new GitHub repository. Open the "Git Shell" application. This will allow you to type commands into GitHub in order to perform certain actions; to use Git Shell, you will need to have GitHub installed on your computer. Enter the command to clone your repository. git", excluding the quotation marks and brackets.

Fill in the bracketed information with your own pertinent information. Push the repository to GitHub. git" on a separate line.

Exclude the quotation marks and brackets, and fill in the bracketed information with your own pertinent information. Remove your local repository's temporary files. This command should say "cd.. Review your local repository. If your old repository's files are now in your new repository, your import was successful!

Method 3. If you're importing using the command line or you're just trying to start a project from scratch, you'll need to start a new repository.

Click "New Repository". Further information: Foreign exchange derivative. Further information: Securities fraud. Journal of Business , — The volatility surface: a practitioner's guide Vol. Retrieved Retrieved 17 December Federal Bureau of Investigation. The Times of Israel. Retrieved February 15, Retrieved March 15, International Business Times AU.

Retrieved 8 March Retrieved March 4, The Guardian. Retrieved 18 May Retrieved December 8, Retrieved October 24, Retrieved February 7, Financial Times. Archived from the original on Retrieved March 21, Retrieved 4 May Financial Market Authority Austria.

Commodity Futures Trading Commission. Options, Futures and Other Derivatives. Prentice Hall. ISBN ca Retrieved on Securities and Exchange Commission. Retrieved 5 September Financial Post. Retrieved April 26, CBC News. September 28, Retrieved September 28, Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved 4 June Retrieved 27 March Archived from the original on 15 October Finance Feeds.

Archived from the original on 3 September Archived from the original on 7 May Federal Financial Supervisory Authority. November 29, id in Indonesian. Retrieved June 19, Commodities and Futures Trading Commission. July 28, Retrieved May 16, Retrieved September 24, Department of Justice. December 19, Retrieved August 19, MFSA Announces Regulatory Framework For Binary Options".

Finance Magnates. July 18, Retrieved October 21, Action Fraud. March 31, Isle of Man Government. January 5, Chicago Board Options Exchange. September 10, Archived from the original PDF on September 10, December 8, June 22, Archived from the original PDF on April 1, The Wall Street Journal.

November 10, March 13, Retrieved March 14, banks and non-financial end-users of derivatives e. real estate development companies because these firms' derivatives usage is inherently different. More importantly, the reasonable collateral that secures these different counterparties can be very different.

The distinction between these firms is not always straight forward e. hedge funds or even some private equity firms do not neatly fit either category. Finally, even financial users must be differentiated, as 'large' banks may classified as "systemically significant" whose derivatives activities must be more tightly monitored and restricted than those of smaller, local and regional banks.

Over-the-counter dealing will be less common as the Dodd—Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act comes into effect. The law mandated the clearing of certain swaps at registered exchanges and imposed various restrictions on derivatives.

To implement Dodd-Frank, the CFTC developed new rules in at least 30 areas. The Commission determines which swaps are subject to mandatory clearing and whether a derivatives exchange is eligible to clear a certain type of swap contract.

Nonetheless, the above and other challenges of the rule-making process have delayed full enactment of aspects of the legislation relating to derivatives. The challenges are further complicated by the necessity to orchestrate globalized financial reform among the nations that comprise the world's major financial markets, a primary responsibility of the Financial Stability Board whose progress is ongoing. In the U.

In November , the SEC and regulators from Australia, Brazil, the European Union, Hong Kong, Japan, Ontario, Quebec, Singapore, and Switzerland met to discuss reforming the OTC derivatives market, as had been agreed by leaders at the G Pittsburgh summit in September On December 20, the CFTC provided information on its swaps regulation "comparability" determinations.

The release addressed the CFTC's cross-border compliance exceptions. Specifically it addressed which entity level and in some cases transaction-level requirements in six jurisdictions Australia, Canada, the European Union, Hong Kong, Japan, and Switzerland it found comparable to its own rules, thus permitting non-US swap dealers, major swap participants, and the foreign branches of US Swap Dealers and major swap participants in these jurisdictions to comply with local rules in lieu of Commission rules.

Mandatory reporting regulations are being finalized in a number of countries, such as Dodd Frank Act in the US, the European Market Infrastructure Regulations EMIR in Europe, as well as regulations in Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, Canada, and other countries.

DTCC , through its "Global Trade Repository" GTR service, manages global trade repositories for interest rates, and commodities, foreign exchange, credit, and equity derivatives. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Financial contract whose value comes from the underlying entity's performance. This article is about the term as used in finance. For the calculus term, see Derivative. For other uses, see Derivative disambiguation.

Assets Bond Commodity Derivatives Foreign exchange Money Over-the-counter Private equity Real estate Spot Stock Participants Investor institutional Retail Speculator Locations Financial centres Offshore financial centres Conduit and sink OFCs.

Bond Cash Collateralised debt obligation Credit default swap Time deposit certificate of deposit Credit line Deposit Derivative Futures contract Indemnity Insurance Letter of credit Loan Mortgage Option call exotic put. General Accounting Audit Capital budgeting Credit rating agency Risk management Financial statements Transactions Leveraged buyout Mergers and acquisitions Structured finance Venture capital Taxation Base erosion and profit shifting BEPS Corporate tax haven Tax inversion Tax haven Transfer pricing.

Government spending Final consumption expenditure Operations Redistribution. Taxation Deficit spending. Budget balance Debt. Central bank Deposit account Fractional-reserve Full-reserve Loan Money supply.

Regulation · Financial law. International Financial Reporting Standards ISO Professional certification Fund governance. Economic history. Private equity and venture capital Recession Stock market bubble Stock market crash Accounting scandals. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. November Learn how and when to remove this template message.

October Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Hedge finance. Main article: Exchange-traded fund. See also: List of finance topics § Derivatives pricing. Further information: Leverage finance § Risk. See also: List of trading losses. Credit derivative Derivatives law Equity derivative Exotic derivative Financial engineering Foreign exchange derivative Freight derivative Inflation derivative Interest rate derivative Property derivatives Weather derivative.

Office of the Comptroller of the Currency , U. Department of Treasury. Retrieved February 15, A derivative is a financial contract whose value is derived from the performance of some underlying market factors, such as interest rates, currency exchange rates, and commodity, credit, or equity prices.

Derivative transactions include an assortment of financial contracts, including structured debt obligations and deposits, swaps, futures, options, caps, floors, collars, forwards, and various combinations thereof. SSRN Derivatives for Decision Makers: Strategic Management Issues. ISBN Retrieved June 15, Options, Futures and another Derivatives 6th ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Rubinstein on Derivatves. Risk Books. The Financial Times. Retrieved October 23, clearing houses ".

The Economist. Economist Newspaper Ltd. subscription required. April 12, Retrieved May 10, Retrieved October 19, Finance in Asia: Institutions, Regulation and Policy. Douglas W.

New York: Routledge. Congressional Budget Office. February 5, Retrieved March 15, April 27, May 25, Newsweek Inc. In John M. Longo ed. Hedge Fund Alpha: A Framework for Generating and Understanding Investment Performance. Singapore : World Scientific.

Retrieved September 14, Chance; Robert Brooks Introduction to Derivatives and Risk Management 8th ed. Mason, OH : Cengage Learning. Dealing With Financial Risk. The Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis.

CiteSeerX doi : S2CID BIS Quarterly Review PDF Report. Bank for International Settlements. See also Prior Period Regular OTC Derivatives Market Statistics. See also FOW Website. Retrieved March 23, August Munich Personal RePEc Archive. Retrieved July 13, Archived from the original on June 29, Asset-backed securities, called ABS, are bonds or notes backed by financial assets.

Typically these assets consist of receivables other than mortgage loans, such as credit card receivables, auto loans, manufactured-housing contracts and home-equity loans.

Working Paper : FT Alphaville. International Swaps and Derivatives Association ISDA. Archived from the original PDF on March 7, Retrieved April 8, December 31, Retrieved March 12, IMF Working Papers. Retrieved April 25, Deutsche Bank Research: Current Issues. Archived from the original PDF on February 2, Retrieved April 15, Retrieved April 2, Skeel, Jr.

University of Cincinnati Law Review. March 23, Archived from the original on April 29, Retrieved April 22, Economic Review FRB Atlanta. Archived from the original PDF on December 14, Journal of Political Economy. JSTOR Fundamentals of Corporate Finance 9th ed. McGraw Hill. May 7, Retrieved August 29, Retrieved June 9, Hedge Funds Review.

Rajan September European Financial Management. September 18, Kelleher of Reuters". The New York Times.

It may be found in natural deposits or may be a refined product, and is classed as a pitch. The largest natural deposit of asphalt in the world, estimated to contain 10 million tons, is the Pitch Lake located in La Brea in southwest Trinidad Antilles island located on the northeastern coast of Venezuela , within the Siparia Regional Corporation.

Its other main uses are for bituminous waterproofing products, including production of roofing felt and for sealing flat roofs. In material sciences and engineering, the terms "asphalt" and "bitumen" are often used interchangeably to mean both natural and manufactured forms of the substance, although there is regional variation as to which term is most common.

Worldwide, geologists tend to favor the term "bitumen" for the naturally occurring material. For the manufactured material, which is a refined residue from the distillation process of selected crude oils, "bitumen" is the prevalent term in much of the world; however, in American English , "asphalt" is more commonly used.

To help avoid confusion, the phrases "liquid asphalt", "asphalt binder", or "asphalt cement" are used in the U.

Colloquially, various forms of asphalt are sometimes referred to as "tar", as in the name of the La Brea Tar Pits , although tar is a different material. Naturally occurring asphalt is sometimes specified by the term "crude bitumen". Its viscosity is similar to that of cold molasses [7] [8] while the material obtained from the fractional distillation of crude oil boiling at °C °F is sometimes referred to as "refined bitumen".

The Canadian province of Alberta has most of the world's reserves of natural asphalt in the Athabasca oil sands , which cover , square kilometres 55, sq mi , an area larger than England. Asphalt properties change with temperature, which means that there is a specific range where viscosity permits adequate compaction by providing lubrication between particles during the compaction process.

Low temperature prevents aggregate particles from moving, and the required density is not possible to achieve. the alpha privative , and σφάλλειν sphallein , "to cause to fall, baffle, in passive err, in passive be balked of".

Specifically, Herodotus mentioned that bitumen was brought to Babylon to build its gigantic fortification wall. In French, the term asphalte is used for naturally occurring asphalt-soaked limestone deposits, and for specialised manufactured products with fewer voids or greater bitumen content than the "asphaltic concrete" used to pave roads.

The word "bitumen" is from Latin, and passed via French into English. In British English , tarmac is used predominantly, which is a generic name, short for tar macadam. The word "asphalt" is instead used to refer to asphalt concrete , a mixture of construction aggregate and asphalt itself also called "tarmac" in common parlance. Bitumen mixed with clay was usually called "asphaltum", but the term is less commonly used today. In Australian English , the word "asphalt" is used to describe a mix of construction aggregate.

In American English , "asphalt" is equivalent to the British "bitumen". However, "asphalt" is also commonly used as a shortened form of " asphalt concrete " therefore equivalent to the British "asphalt" or "tarmac". In Canadian English , the word "bitumen" is used to refer to the vast Canadian deposits of extremely heavy crude oil , [16] while "asphalt" is used for the oil refinery product. Diluted bitumen diluted with naphtha to make it flow in pipelines is known as " dilbit " in the Canadian petroleum industry, while bitumen " upgraded " to synthetic crude oil is known as "syncrude", and syncrude blended with bitumen is called "synbit".

The oil sands of Alberta, Canada are a similar material. Neither of the terms "asphalt" or "bitumen" should be confused with tar or coal tars. Tar is the thick liquid product of the dry distillation and pyrolysis of organic hydrocarbons primarily sourced from vegetation masses, whether fossilized as with coal, or freshly harvested.

The majority of bitumen, on the other hand, was formed naturally when vast quantities of organic animal materials were deposited by water and buried hundreds of metres deep at the diagenetic point, where the disorganized fatty hydrocarbon molecules joined in long chains in the absence of oxygen.

Bitumen occurs as a solid or highly viscous liquid. It may even be mixed in with coal deposits. Bitumen, and coal using the Bergius process , can be refined into petrols such as gasoline, and bitumen may be distilled into tar, not the other way around. The naphthene aromatics and polar aromatics are typically the majority components. The substance is soluble in carbon disulfide. It is commonly modelled as a colloid , with asphaltenes as the dispersed phase and maltenes as the continuous phase.

Asphalt may be confused with coal tar , which is a visually similar black, thermoplastic material produced by the destructive distillation of coal. During the early and midth century, when town gas was produced, coal tar was a readily available byproduct and extensively used as the binder for road aggregates.

The addition of coal tar to macadam roads led to the word " tarmac ", which is now used in common parlance to refer to road-making materials. However, since the s, when natural gas succeeded town gas, asphalt has completely overtaken the use of coal tar in these applications. Other examples of this confusion include La Brea Tar Pits and the Canadian oil sands , both of which actually contain natural bitumen rather than tar.

For economic and other reasons, asphalt is sometimes sold combined with other materials, often without being labeled as anything other than simply "asphalt". Of particular note is the use of re-refined engine oil bottoms — "REOB" or "REOBs" — the residue of recycled automotive engine oil collected from the bottoms of re-refining vacuum distillation towers, in the manufacture of asphalt.

REOB contains various elements and compounds found in recycled engine oil: additives to the original oil and materials accumulating from its circulation in the engine typically iron and copper.

Some research has indicated a correlation between this adulteration of asphalt and poorer-performing pavement. The majority of asphalt used commercially is obtained from petroleum. Naturally occurring deposits of bitumen are formed from the remains of ancient, microscopic algae diatoms and other once-living things. These natural deposits of bitumen have been formed during the Carboniferous period, when giant swamp forests dominated many parts of the Earth. Under the heat above 50 °C and pressure of burial deep in the earth, the remains were transformed into materials such as bitumen, kerogen , or petroleum.

Natural deposits of bitumen include lakes such as the Pitch Lake in Trinidad and Tobago and Lake Bermudez in Venezuela. Natural seeps occur in the La Brea Tar Pits and the McKittrick Tar Pits in California , as well as in the Dead Sea. Bitumen also occurs in unconsolidated sandstones known as "oil sands" in Alberta , Canada, and the similar "tar sands" in Utah , US.

The Canadian province of Alberta has most of the world's reserves, in three huge deposits covering , square kilometres 55, sq mi , an area larger than England or New York state. These bituminous sands contain billion barrels Although historically it was used without refining to pave roads, nearly all of the output is now used as raw material for oil refineries in Canada and the United States.

The world's largest deposit of natural bitumen, known as the Athabasca oil sands , is located in the McMurray Formation of Northern Alberta. Of the Alberta deposits, only parts of the Athabasca oil sands are shallow enough to be suitable for surface mining. Much smaller heavy oil or bitumen deposits also occur in the Uinta Basin in Utah, US. Bitumen may occur in hydrothermal veins. An example of this is within the Uinta Basin of Utah , in the US, where there is a swarm of laterally and vertically extensive veins composed of a solid hydrocarbon termed Gilsonite.

These veins formed by the polymerization and solidification of hydrocarbons that were mobilized from the deeper oil shales of the Green River Formation during burial and diagenesis. Bitumen is similar to the organic matter in carbonaceous meteorites. They were covered by mud, buried deeply over time, and gently cooked into oil by geothermal heat at a temperature of 50 to °C to °F.

Due to pressure from the rising of the Rocky Mountains in southwestern Alberta, 80 to 55 million years ago, the oil was driven northeast hundreds of kilometres and trapped into underground sand deposits left behind by ancient river beds and ocean beaches, thus forming the oil sands.

The use of natural bitumen for waterproofing , and as an adhesive dates at least to the fifth millennium BC, with a crop storage basket discovered in Mehrgarh , of the Indus Valley civilization , lined with it. In the ancient Middle East, the Sumerians used natural bitumen deposits for mortar between bricks and stones, to cement parts of carvings, such as eyes, into place, for ship caulking , and for waterproofing.

The 1 kilometre 0. Bitumen was used by ancient Egyptians to embalm mummies. The Egyptians' primary source of bitumen was the Dead Sea , which the Romans knew as Palus Asphaltites Asphalt Lake. In approximately 40 AD, Dioscorides described the Dead Sea material as Judaicum bitumen , and noted other places in the region where it could be found.

Bitumen was a valuable strategic resource. It was the object of the first known battle for a hydrocarbon deposit — between the Seleucids and the Nabateans in BC. In the ancient Far East, natural bitumen was slowly boiled to get rid of the higher fractions , leaving a thermoplastic material of higher molecular weight that, when layered on objects, became hard upon cooling.

This was used to cover objects that needed waterproofing, [2] such as scabbards and other items. Statuettes of household deities were also cast with this type of material in Japan, and probably also in China. In North America , archaeological recovery has indicated that bitumen was sometimes used to adhere stone projectile points to wooden shafts.

In , Pierre Belon described in his work Observations that pissasphalto , a mixture of pitch and bitumen, was used in the Republic of Ragusa now Dubrovnik , Croatia for tarring of ships. An edition of Mechanics Magazine cites an early use of asphalt in France. A pamphlet dated , by "a certain Monsieur d'Eyrinys, states that he had discovered the existence of asphaltum in large quantities in the vicinity of Neufchatel", and that he proposed to use it in a variety of ways — "principally in the construction of air-proof granaries, and in protecting, by means of the arches, the water-courses in the city of Paris from the intrusion of dirt and filth", which at that time made the water unusable.

But the substance was generally neglected in France until the revolution of In the s there was a surge of interest, and asphalt became widely used "for pavements, flat roofs, and the lining of cisterns, and in England, some use of it had been made of it for similar purposes".

Its rise in Europe was "a sudden phenomenon", after natural deposits were found "in France at Osbann Bas-Rhin , the Parc Ain and the Puy-de-la-Poix Puy-de-Dôme ", although it could also be made artificially. Among the earlier uses of bitumen in the United Kingdom was for etching. William Salmon's Polygraphice provides a recipe for varnish used in etching, consisting of three ounces of virgin wax, two ounces of mastic , and one ounce of asphaltum. The first British patent for the use of asphalt was "Cassell's patent asphalte or bitumen" in Lamb Phipson writes that his father, Samuel Ryland Phipson, a friend of Claridge, was also "instrumental in introducing the asphalte pavement in ".

Claridge obtained a patent in Scotland on 27 March , and obtained a patent in Ireland on 23 April In , extensions for the patent and for both patents were sought by the trustees of a company previously formed by Claridge.

James Park". In , there was a flurry of entrepreneurial activity involving asphalt, which had uses beyond paving.

For example, asphalt could also be used for flooring, damp proofing in buildings, and for waterproofing of various types of pools and baths, both of which were also proliferating in the 19th century. On the London stockmarket, there were various claims as to the exclusivity of asphalt quality from France, Germany and England. And numerous patents were granted in France, with similar numbers of patent applications being denied in England due to their similarity to each other.

In England, "Claridge's was the type most used in the s and 50s". In , Claridge's Company entered into a joint venture to produce tar-bound macadam , [58] with materials manufactured through a subsidiary company called Clarmac Roads Ltd. Bitumen was thought in 19th century Britain to contain chemicals with medicinal properties.

Extracts from bitumen were used to treat catarrh and some forms of asthma and as a remedy against worms, especially the tapeworm. The first use of bitumen in the New World was by indigenous peoples. On the west coast, as early as the 13th century, the Tongva , Luiseño and Chumash peoples collected the naturally occurring bitumen that seeped to the surface above underlying petroleum deposits. All three groups used the substance as an adhesive.

,Non-exchange-traded binary options [ edit ]

WebMetrication (or metrification) is the process of introducing the International System of Units, also known as SI units or the metric system, to replace a jurisdiction's traditional measuring units. U.S. customary units have been defined in terms of metric units since the 19th century, and the SI has been the "preferred system of weights and measures for United WebFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. In finance. a binary option is a type of option in which the payoff can take only two possible outcomes, either some fixed monetary WebPhilosophy. A heuristic device is used when an entity X exists to enable understanding of, or knowledge concerning, some other entity Y.. A good example is a model that, as it is never identical with what it models, is a heuristic device to enable understanding of what it blogger.coms, metaphors, etc., can also be termed heuristic in this sense. A classic WebThe Times article points out that the binary option industry uses extensive SEO operations to make the top results for binary options look legit. Wikipedia shouldn't be a part of WebIn finance, a derivative is a contract that derives its value from the performance of an underlying entity. This underlying entity can be an asset, index, or interest rate, and is often simply called the "underlying". Derivatives can be used for a number of purposes, including insuring against price movements (), increasing exposure to price movements for WebIn statistics, quality assurance, and survey methodology, sampling is the selection of a subset (a statistical sample) of individuals from within a statistical population to estimate characteristics of the whole population. Statisticians attempt to collect samples that are representative of the population in question. Sampling has lower costs and faster data ... read more

All three groups used the substance as an adhesive. The results usually must be adjusted to correct for the oversampling. Although uncompetitive economically, asphalt can be made from nonpetroleum-based renewable resources such as sugar, molasses and rice, corn and potato starches. In Australian English , the word "asphalt" is used to describe a mix of construction aggregate. In John M. S2CID

Nonetheless, fair binary option wikipedia, the above and other challenges of the rule-making process have delayed full enactment of aspects of the legislation relating to derivatives. Retrieved June 9, Systematic sampling can also be adapted to a non-EPS approach; for an example, see discussion of PPS samples below. Retrieved August 18, The substance is soluble in carbon disulfide.